1L20.10 - Gravity Well - Black Hole

Code Number:
1L20.10
Demo Title:
Gravity Well - Black Hole
Condition:
Good
Principle:
Warping of Space-Time by Mass
Area of Study:
Stellar Astronomy
Equipment:
Clothes Basket with Rubber Covering, Small Steel Ball, Large Steel Ball, Ping-Pong Ball (Painted, Red & Blue), Ball (Wooden), Ball (Wooden with Holes Through Diameter), Vortex Cone on Stand (Small), Vortex Cone on Stand (Large), and Video Camera with Power Supply.
Procedure:

See also 8B40.40 in Astronomy and 1L20.10/8B40.40 in Astronomy.

Place the camera looking straight down at the top of the basket.  Place the larger and heavier balls very gently into the basket. Replacement of the membrane is necessary when it shows undue wear.  Do not leave anything on the membrane during storage as stretching may occur.

The vortex cones need very little work.  Clean them with plastic polish and a soft cloth.  Note that a pretty fair demonstration of an event horizon occurs when the ball seems to stop its descent and rotate in one plane for several seconds just before it falls into the stand.

References:
  • Allen I. Janis, "On Mass, Spacetime Curvature, and Gravity", TPT, Vol. 56. #1, Jan. 2018, p. 12.
  • Arunava Roy, "Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider", TPT, Vol. 49, #9, Dec. 2011, p. 544.
  • Willem H. van den Berg, "The Gravitational Landscape of the Solar System", TPT, Vol. 46, #6, Sept. 2008, p. 363.
  • Michael J. Ruiz, "A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center", TPT, Vol. 46, #1, Jan. 2008, p. 10.
  • Michael C. LoPresto, "Correction: “Some Simple Black-Hole Thermodynamics” [Phys. Teach. 41(5), 299–301 (2003)]", TPT, Vol. 41, #6, Sept. 2003, p. 319.
  • Michael C. LoPresto, "Some Simple Black Hole Thermodynamics", TPT, Vol. 41, #5, May 2003, p. 299.
  • Michael C. Lo Presto and Rima Meroueh, "How Dense Is a Black Hole?", TPT, Vol. 39, #2, Feb. 2001, p. 84.
  • Ronald P. Gruber, Alicia D. Gruber, Russell Hamilton, and Stephen M. Matthews, "Space Curvature and the 'Heavy Banana Paradox'", TPT, Vol. 29, #3, Mar. 1991, p. 147.
  • R. D. Edge, "String & Sticky Tape Experiments: The Funny Physics Funnel", TPT, Vol. 28, #8, Nov. 1990, p. 575.
  • Emory Kimbrough, "Beyond Balloon Fun", TPT, Vol. 25, #9, Dec. 1987, p. 546.
  • Donald E. Hall, "Response", TPT, Vol. 24, #8, Nov. 1986, p. 460.
  • Don B. Lichtenberg, "Black Holes Reconsidered", TPT, Vol. 24, #8, Nov. 1986, p. 460.
  • Donald E. Hall, "The Hazards of Encountering a Black Hole. Part II: A Variety of Ways to Die", TPT, Vol. 24, #1, Jan. 1986, p. 29.
  • Donald E. Hall, "The Hazards of Encountering a Black Hole Part I: Testing the Limits of Physics", TPT, Vol. 23, #9, Dec. 1985, p. 540.
  • Katashi Nose, "Constructing a Potential Well-Hill for Overhead Projectors", TPT, Vol. 16, #7, Oct. 1978, p. 504.
  • David P. Koch, "More Toy Store Physics", TPT, Vol. 14, #8, Nov. 1976, p. 506, also A Potpourri of Physics Teaching Ideas - Toys, p. 268.
  • Kip S. Thorne, "The Death of a Star", TPT, Vol. 9, #6, Sept. 1971, p. 326.
  • John A. Wheeler, "Our Universe: The Known and the Unknown", TPT, Vol. 7, #1, Jan. 1969, p. 24.
  • Don S. Lemons and T. C. Lipscombe, "Comment on “The Shape of ‘The Spandex’ and the Orbits Upon its Surface,” by Gary D. White and Michael Walker [Am. J. Phys. 70 (1), 48–52 (2002)]", AJP, Vol. 70, #10, Oct. 2002, p. 1056.
  • Gary D. White and Michael Walker, "The Shape of 'The Spandex' and Orbits Upon its Surface", AJP, Vol. 70, #1, Jan. 2002, p. 48.
  • Richard T. Hammond, "Rescue from Falling Into a Black Hole", AJP, Vol. 56, #1, Jan. 1988, p. 27.
  • James G. Ellingson, "The Deflection of Light by the Sun Due to Three-Space Curvature", AJP, Vol. 55, #8, Aug.1987, p. 759.
  • Gary Kessler, "Simple Model for  the Emission of Particles by Black Holes", AJP, Vol. 46, #6, June 1978, p. 678.
  • Robert W. Brehme, "Inside the Black Hole", AJP, Vol. 45, #5, May 1977, p. 423.
  • Robert W. Brehme, "On the Radius of Black Holes", AJP, Vol. 42, #11, Nov. 1974, p. 1039.
  • Remo Ruffini and John A. Wheeler, "Introducing the Black Hole", Physics Today, Vol. 62, #4, Apr. 2009, p. 47.
  • Bertram Schwarzschild, "Radio Interferometry Measures the Black Hole at the Milky Way's Center", Physics Today, Vol. 61, #11, Nov. 2008, p. 14.
  • Jon M. Miller and Christopher S. Reynolds, "Black Holes and Their Environments", Physics Today, Vol. 60, #8, Aug. 2007, p. 42.
  • Daniel Clery, "Black Holes Caught in the Act of Swallowing Stars", Science, Vol. 367, #6477, Jan. 2020, p. 495.
  • "S-075. VORTX Funnel Coin Collector", DICK and RAE Physics Demo Notebook, 1993.
  • "S-065. Garbage Bag on Trash Can", DICK and RAE Physics Demo Notebook, 1993.
  • "M-822. Garbage Bag-VORTX-Ball & String", DICK and RAE Physics Demo Notebook, 1993.
  • David Kutliroff, "49. An Inverse Square Law Force Field Sculpture", 101 Classroom Demonstrations and Experiments For Teaching Physics, p. 109.
  • Borislaw Bilash II and David Maiullo, "Mass Curves Space", A Demo a Day: A Year of Physics Demonstrations, p. 364 - 365.
  • "Category 3: Understanding the Cosmos: Black Holes", International Master Publishers.
  • Isaac Asimov, "The Dead-End Middle", Fantasy and Science Fiction Magazine, p. 122 - 132.
  • Isaac Asimov, "Beyond the Night Sky", The Roving Mind, p. 177 - 180.
  • Robert Ehrlich, "B.3. Acceleration as an Effect of Curved Space-Time", Turning the World Inside Out and 174 Other Simple Physic Demonstrations, p. 17 - 20.
  • Robert Ehrlich, "B.2. Simulation of the Gravitational Deflection of Light", Turning the World Inside Out and 174 Other Simple Physics Demonstrations, p. 14 - 17.
  • Robert Ehrlich, "B.1. Gravity and Curved Space-Time", Turning the World Inside Out and 174 Other Simple Physics Demonstrations, p. 13 - 14.
  • Robert Ehrlich, "4.5 - A Precessing Orbit", Why Toast Lands Jelly-Side Down, p. 66.




Disclaimer: These demonstrations are provided only for illustrative use by persons affiliated with The University of Iowa and only under the direction of a trained instructor or physicist.  The University of Iowa is not responsible for demonstrations performed by those using their own equipment or who choose to use this reference material for their own purpose.  The demonstrations included here are within the public domain and can be found in materials contained in libraries, bookstores, and through electronic sources.  Performing all or any portion of any of these demonstrations, with or without revisions not depicted here entails inherent risks.  These risks include, without limitation, bodily injury (and possibly death), including risks to health that may be temporary or permanent and that may exacerbate a pre-existing medical condition; and property loss or damage.  Anyone performing any part of these demonstrations, even with revisions, knowingly and voluntarily assumes all risks associated with them.