4E30.10 - Constant Volume Bulb - Absolute Zero Apparatus
When the metal flask is put into the different temperature water baths a large needle fluctuation should be observed. CO2 in alcohol may be substituted for the water ice bath but care MUST be observed due to the fire hazards. Plotting Temperature VS Pressure of different gases should allow you to make a determination of Absolute Zero.
The regular Boyle's Law Apparatus can be adapted to studies of Absolute Zero with the addition of the optional Absolute Zero Bulb. Once properly set up and checked for leaks at the quick connect coupler, the apparatus is used in the same way as the constant volume bulb described above.
Liquid nitrogen may be used to cool this device.
HOWEVER, care must be taken not to hold the bulb in the liquid nitrogen too long as this may crack the seam.
- Nelson Kilmer and Joel D. Krehbiel, "Improved Gay-Lussac Experiment Considering Added Volumes", TPT, Vol. 57, #1, Jan. 2019, p. 21.
- Jeffrey D. Goldader, "Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork", TPT, Vol. 46, #4, Apr. 2008, p. 206.
- Dean S. Edmonds Jr., "Comments on Determination of Absolute Zero", TPT, Vol. 41, #6, Sept. 2003, p. 318.
- Dragia Trifonov Ivanov, "Experimental Determination of Absolute Zero Temperature", TPT, Vol. 41, #3, Mar. 2003, p. 172.
- Gavin D. Peckham, "P-V Diagrams Have More to Offer", TPT, Vol. 35, #1, Jan. 1997, p. 56.
- Barbara S. Andereck, "Colder than Zero?", TPT, Vol. 29, #8, Nov. 1991, p. 485.
- Robert Otani and Peter Siegel, "Determining Absolute Zero in the Kitchen Sink", TPT, Vol. 29, #5, May 1991, p. 316.
- Michael D. Edmiston, "Boiling, Bubbles, and Pressure", TPT, Vol. 27, #3, Mar. 1989, p. 136.
- Thomas O. Callaway and Harry D. Downing, "Response", TPT, Vol. 27, #3, Mar. 1989, p. 136.
- G. T. Clayton, T. O. Callaway, and H. D. Downing, "Experiments with Disposable Hypodermic Syringes", TPT, Vol. 26, #1, Jan. 1988, p. 19.
- Harvey S. Left, "Heat Engines and the Performance of External Work", AJP, Vol. 46, #3, Mar. 1978, p. 218.
- Caroline Delbert, "This Is The Closest Scientists Have Gotten to Reaching Absolute Zero", Popular Mechanics, March/April 2022, p. 32.
- A. Mason Turner, "Boyle's Law and Absolute Zero", EME Study Guide, Danbury, CT., 1975.
- Ha-4, Hg-1: Freier and Anderson, A Demonstration Handbook for Physics.
- C. J. Overbeck, R. R. Palmer, R. J. Stephenson, and Marsh W. White, Boyle's and Charle's, Selective Experiments in Physics, Central Scientific Company, 1940.
- V. E. Eaton, C. J. Overbeck, R. J. Stephenson, and Marsh W. White, "Charles' Law", Selective Experiments in Physics, Central Scientific Company, 1940.
- C. J. Overbeck, R. R. Palmer, R. J. Stephenson, and Marsh W. White, "Expansion of Gases", Selective Experiments in Physics, Central Scientific Company, 1940.
- C. J. Overbeck, R. J. Stephenson, and Marsh W. White, "Charles' Law", Selective Experiments in Physics, Central Scientific Company, 1959.
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