6H35.15 - Polarization - Calcite & Iceland Spar
The calcite shows double refraction in crystals. Place the calcite crystal over one of the transparencies on the overhead projector. Your should see two sets of words, one set is produced by the ordinary rays while the other is produced by the extraordinary rays. With a polarizer you will now be able to selectively shut off either the ordinary or extraordinary ray.
Iceland spar is natural calcium carbonate mineral crystal. Usually in this form the natural defects prevent useful demonstrations.
- Thomas B. Greenslade Jr., "Polarized Light Demonstations with the Overhead Projector", TPT, Vol. 59, #8, Nov. 2021, p. 652.
- Paul Changnon, "Animated Displays IV: Linear Polarization", TPT, Vol. 31, #8, Nov. 1993, p. 489, referenced in Resource Letter TLC-1 Teaching Light and Color, Demonstration Experiments Resource Articles.
- G. R. Davies, "Polarized Light Corridor Demonstration", TPT, Vol. 28, #7, Oct. 1990, p. 464.
- Thomas B. Greenslade Jr., "Iceland Spar Crystal", AJP, Vol. 89, #4, April 2021, p. 341.
- Flora Lichtman, "The Thousand-Year-Old Viking Sunstone", Popular Science, Vol. 284, #4, Apr. 2012, p. 33.
- G. D. Freier and F. J. Anderson, "Om-6", A Demonstration Handbook for Physics.
- G. D. Freier and F. J. Anderson, "Om-5", A Demonstration Handbook for Physics.
- O-625: "Calcite - Cellophane", DICK and RAE Physics Demo Notebook.
- George M. Hopkins, "Polarized Light", Experimental Science, p. 239.
- George M. Hopkins, "Polarized Light", Experimental Science, p. 233.
- John Henry Pepper, "Double Refraction and the Polarization of Light", Cyclopadic Science Simplified, p. 111.
- Borislaw Bilash II and David Maiullo, "Can you See Me Now", A Demo a Day: A Year of Physics Demonstrations, p. 322.
- Alan Holden and Phylis Morrison, "Sodium Nitrate", Crystals and Crystal Growing, p. 116.
- Alan Holden and Phylis Morrison, "Some Optical Experiments", Crystals and Crystal Growing, p. 235 - 248.
- Jearl Walker, "5.51. Colored Frost Flowers", The Flying Circus of Physics with Answers.
- Gerard L'e Turner, Nineteenth-Century Scientific Instruments, p. 154.
- Gordon McComb, "Experimenting With Calcite", Lasers, Ray Guns, & Light Cannons, p. 128 - 130.
- Isaac Asimov, "Trapping the Rainbow", Fantasy and Science Fiction Magazine, p. 132.
- Robert Ehrlich, "O.5. Calcite Crystal", Turning the World Inside Out and 174 Other Simple Physics Demonstrations, p. 174.
- C. Harvey Palmer, "Experiment C4: Double Refraction in Calcite", Optics - Experiments and Demonstrations, John Hopkins Press, 1962.
- C. Harvey Palmer, "Experiment C3: Simple Polarization Demonstrations", Optics - Experiments and Demonstrations, John Hopkins Press, 1962.
- T. D. Rossing and C. J. Chiaverina, "7.3. Polarization By Double Refraction: Birefringence", Light Science, Physics and Visual Arts, p. 157.
- Joseph Frick, "#196 - The Principal Analyzing Apparatus", Physical Technics: Or Practical Instructions for Making Experiments in Physics and the Construction of Physical Apparatus with the Most Limmited Means, p. 228.
- Joseph Frick, "#200 & 201 - Experiments on Double Refraction", Physical Technics: Or Practical Instructions for Making Experiments in Physics and the Construction of Physical Apparatus with the Most Limmited Means, p. 233 & 234.
- "Prism for Double Refraction", Pike's Illustrated Catalogue of Scientific & Medical Instruments, Pike's Illustrated Descriptive Catalogue of Optical, Mathematical, and Philosophical Instruments, 1984, p. 194.
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