7D10.80 - Cosmic Rays

Code Number:
7D10.80
Demo Title:
Cosmic Rays
Condition:
Excellent
Principle:
Observing Cosmic Rays
Area of Study:
Modern Physics
Equipment:
Cloud Chamber, Dry ice for Cloud Chamber, Radioactive Source for Cloud Chamber, Ethyl Alcohol, and Camera with Power Supply.
Procedure:

See also 7D10.80 in Astronomy.

The chamber should be set up as described in the manual in the file. Care should be taken to insure that the black plate in the chamber is level. The chamber is attached to a leveling stand with Velcro so that this may be done. Turn the fluorescent light on as soon as possible or the ballast may get to cold to activate. Place the camera as shown over the glass window in the top plate.  Close-up lenses are not needed if you use the macro part of the lens on the camera. The ion trails should appear in 5 to 15 minutes after the final step of activation and last for several hours.

References:
  • Eleanor Anne Winkler, Paul Graham, Nathan A. Unterman, Benjamin Grey, Jacob M. Miller, Max J. Miller, Allen J. Sears, Alex Bernat, Shoshana Frank, Joshua Simon, Shira K. Eliaser, Tom Blackmore, Emmanuelle Copeland, Marybeth Senser, Henry Seiden, Anthony Valsamis, Mark Adam, "Beyond the Classroom: Profiling Muon Flux in Relation to Overburden in Fermilab's MINOS Tunnel", TPT, Vol. 60, #2, Feb. 2022, p. 110.
  • Tamar A. Dallal, Jacob M. Miller, Michelle Matten, Ezra Schur, Allen J. Sears, Clarissa Carr, Jacob Rosenberg, Nathan A. Unterman, Anthony Valsamis, Mark Adams, "Solar Eclipse and Cosmic Ray Flux", TPT, Vol 60, #2, Feb. 2022, p. 100.
  • Jeffrey D. Goldader and Seulah Choi, "An Inexpensive Cosmic Ray Detector for the Classroom", TPT, Vol. 48, #9, Dec. 2010, p. 594. 
  • W. Brouwer, J. Pinfold, R. Soluk, B. McDonough, V. Pasek, and Zheng Bao-shan, "Student Projects in Cosmic Ray Detection", TPT, Vol. 47, #8, Nov. 2009, p. 494.
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  • Matteo Leone, "Particles That Take Photographs of Themselves: The Emergence of the Triggered Cloud Chamber Technique in Early 1930s Cosmic-Ray Physics", AJP, Vol. 79, #5, May 2011, p. 454.
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  • Qiaozhen Xu and Laurie M. Brown, "The Early History of Cosmic Ray Research", AJP, Vol. 55, #1, Jan. 1987, p. 23.
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  • Bertram Schwarzschild, "Gamma-Ray Spectra Show That Supernova Remnants Create Cosmic-Ray Protons", Physics Today, Vol. 66, #4, Apr. 2013, p. 14.
  • Per Carlson, "A Century of Cosmic Rays", Physics Today, Vol. 65, #2, Feb. 2012, p. 30.
  • Bertram Schwarzschild, "Balloon Experiment Reveals a New Way of Finding Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays", Physics Today, Vol. 63, #12, Dec. 2010, p. 22.
  • Bertram Schwarzschild, "The Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays May be Iron Nuclei", Physics Today, Vol. 63, #5, May 2010, p. 16.
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  • F.-Y. Chang et al., "Plasma Waves and Cosmic Rays", Physics Today, Vol. 62, #5, May 2009, p. 22.
  • Bertram M. Schwarzschild, "Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays", Physics Today, Vol. 61, #10, Oct. 2008, p. 25.
  • Bertram Schwarzschild, "The Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays Appear to Come From Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei", Physics Today, Vol. 61, #1, Jan. 2008, p. 16.
  • Bertram Schwarzschild, "Varying Cosmic-Ray Flux May Explain Cycles of Biodiversity", Physics Today, Vol. 60, #10, Oct. 2007, p. 18.
  • Bertram Schwarzschild, "Fluorescence Telescope Observe the Predicted Ultrahigh-Energy Cutoff of the Cosmic-Ray Spectrum", Physics Today, Vol. 60, #5, May 2007, p. 17.
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  • Isaac Asimov, "Into the Here", Fantasy and Science Fiction Magazine, p. 138.
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  • James A. Van Allen, "On the Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity During Solar Activity Cycles 19, 20, 21, 22 and Early 23", Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, # 16, Aug. 15, 2000, p. 2753 - 2456.
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  • George H. Ludwig, "The First Explorer Satellites", prepared for Van Allen's 90thBirthday Celebration At the University of Iowa, 9 October 2004.
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  • "This Month in Physics History: February 6, 1970: Luis Alverez's Paper Science on Cosmic Rays and Pyramids", APS News, Vol. 28, #2, Feb. 2019, p. 2, 6.








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