8C10.25 - Steady State, Expanding, Contracting Universe

Code Number:
Demo Title:
Steady State, Expanding, Contracting Universe
Hubble's Law and Doppler Shift
Area of Study:
Galactic Astronomy
Rubber Sheeting with drawn Sine wave, Variable pendulum apparatus mounted sideways.

Draw a Sine wave onto an unexpanded portion of the rubber sheet.  Duct tape one end to an upright rod and the other end to the variable pendulum apparatus.  Stretch the rubber sheet half way (steady state) so that you can show Doppler shift expansion and contraction by stretching and un-stretching respectively.

  • Jack Higbie, "Superluminal? You Bet!", TPT, Vol. 52, # 1, Jan. 2014, p. 16.
  • Lawrence M. Krauss, "The History and Fate of the Universe: A Guide to Accompany the Contemporary Physics Education Project Cosmology Chart", TPT, Vol. 41, # 3, Mar. 2003, p. 146.
  • Edward W. Kolb and Chris Ouigg, "Probing the Structure of the Universe from Quarks to Cosmology", TPT, Vol. 24, # 9, Dec. 1986, p. 528.
  • Emilia P. Belserene, "The Universe: Open or Closed?", TPT, Vol. 16, # 3, Mar. 1978, p. 137.
  • Tamara M. Davis, Charles H. Linewater, John K. Webb, "Solutions to the Tethered Galaxy Problem in an Expanding Universe and the Observation of Receding Blueshifted Objects", AJP, Vol. 71, # 4, April 2003, p. 358.
  • B.L. Rawat, "Doppler Effect in Special Relativity Theory", AJP, Vol. 45, # 12, Dec. 1977, p. 1211.
  • Peter G. Gross, "Generalized Doppler Formula in a Nonstatic Universe", AJP, Vol. 45, # 7, July 1977, p. 642.
  • J. Richard Gott III et al., "# 10, Will the Universe Expand Forever?", Scientific American Cosmology +1, March 1976, p. 82.  See the Lecture Demo Reference Library in Rm. 58 for this reference.
  • Allen R. Sandage, "# 1, The Red-Shift", Scientific American Cosmology +1, Sept. 1956, p. 5.  See the Lecture Demo Reference Library in Rm. 58 for this reference.
  • Neil F. Comins, William J. Kaufmann III, "Discovering the Universe", Sixth Edition, Chapter 17 - 2, p. 428.
  • Freeman J. Dyson, "Time Without End: Physics and Biology in an Open Universe", Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 51, # 3, July 1979, p. 447.

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