5C30.10 - Leyden Jars

Connect the Leyden Jars either to the Van de Graaff or the Wimshurst and charge.  When touching the inner and outer conductors together after charging, a spark or shock should be produced.
Code Number:
5C30.10
Demo Title:
Leyden Jars
Condition:
Excellent
Principle:
Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor
Area of Study:
Electricity & Magnetism
Equipment:
Leyden Jars, Wimshurst machine with attached Leyden Jars.
Procedure:

Connect the Leyden Jars either to the Van de Graaff or the Wimshurst and charge.  When touching the inner and outer conductors together after charging, a spark or shock should be produced.

References:
  • Haym Kruglak, "A Homemade Leyden Jar", TPT, Vol. 35, # 5, May 1997, p. 299.
  • Thomas B. Greenslade, Jr.,  "Discovery of the Leiden Jar",  TPT, Vol. 32, # 9, p.  536, Dec. 1994.
  • James Mahoney, "A Demonstration of AC Rectification", TPT, Vol. 18, # 4, Apr. 1980, p. 318. 
  • Thomas B. Greenslade, Jr., "Capacitors in Cascade", TPT, Vol. 16, # 7, Oct. 1978, p. 488.
  • Thomas B. Greenslade, Jr., "Leyden Jars (Photo)", AJP, Vol. 71, # 9, Sept. 2003, p. 937.
  • Eb-8: Freier and Anderson,  A Demonstration Handbook for Physics.
  • Tik Liem,  "The Electrostatic Storage",  Investigation to Science Inquiry,   p. 247
  • Robert A. Morse, "Laboratory Activity 8: Storing Charge - The Electric Bottle or Leyden Jar", Teaching about Electrostatics, p. 3 - 24.
  • George M. Hopkins, "Frictional Electricity", Experimental Science, p. 381.
  • John Henry Pepper, "The Electrophorus", Cyclopadic Science Simplified, p. 247.
  • Carson I. A. Ritchie, "Leyden Jar", Making Scientific Toys, p. 152.
  • Joseph H. Adams, "Large Leyden-Jar", Harper's Electricity Book For Boys", p. 323.
  • R. A. Ford,  "The Leyden Jar Condenser",  Homemade Lightening,  p. 109. 
  • Beth Rieg,  "If I Could Save Charge in a Bottle...",  PIRA Newsletter, Vol. 6, # 6, p. 5, June 1992.
  • Grant Mellor, "A Big Shock", Flying Tinsel, 1993, p. 38 - 43.
  • Grant Mellor, "A Second Look", Flying Tinsel, 1993, p. 44 - 47.
  • Rudolf F. Graf, "The Leyden Jar", Safe and Simple Electrical Experiments, p. 19.
  • Borislaw Bilash II, “Storing the Charge“, A Demo A Day – A Year of Physical Science Demonstrations, p. 276.
  • Joseph Frick, "# 263 - The Leyden Jar: Its Construction", Physical Technics: Or Practical Instructions for Making Experiments in Physics and the Construction of Physical Apparatus with the Most Limmited Means, p. 288.
  • Joseph Frick, "# 268 - Experiments With the Leyden Jar", Physical Technics: Or Practical Instructions for Making Experiments in Physics and the Construction of Physical Apparatus with the Most Limmited Means, p. 294.
  • Dr. Gordon Stables, R.N., C. Stansfeld Hicks, J. N. Maskelyne, Rev. Harry Jones, M.A, Dr. Stradling, Captain Crawley, Rev. A. n. Malan, M.A., F.G.S., and Many Others, "The Leyden Jar, and How to Make It", The Boy's Own Book of  Indoor Games and Recreations, A Popular Encyclopaedia for Boys, p. 434.
  • "Leyden Jar", Pike's Illustrated Catalogue of Scientific & Medical Instruments, 1984, p. 260.

Disclaimer: These demonstrations are provided only for illustrative use by persons affiliated with The University of Iowa and only under the direction of a trained instructor or physicist.  The University of Iowa is not responsible for demonstrations performed by those using their own equipment or who choose to use this reference material for their own purpose.  The demonstrations included here are within the public domain and can be found in materials contained in libraries, bookstores, and through electronic sources.  Performing all or any portion of any of these demonstrations, with or without revisions not depicted here entails inherent risks.  These risks include, without limitation, bodily injury (and possibly death), including risks to health that may be temporary or permanent and that may exacerbate a pre-existing medical condition; and property loss or damage.  Anyone performing any part of these demonstrations, even with revisions, knowingly and voluntarily assumes all risks associated with them.