3D30.14 - Open Tube Resonance - Ambient Noise Resonators

Code Number:
Demo Title:
Open Tube Resonance - Ambient Noise Resonators
Resonance in a Tube
Area of Study:
Pan Pipes Made from 40 Watt Light Tube Covers.

Listen to the ambient noise with each pipe. Certain frequencies will resonate depending on tube size and length. Octaves can be heard depending on whether the pipe is away from the ear in an open configuration or against the ear in the closed configuration.

The Sea Shell is not a Helmholtz Resonator. The air volume of the shell will be exited at the shells resonant frequencies, of which there should be several. This shell has several resonances at frequencies below 300 Hz.

  • Joe Pizzo, "Echo Tube", TPT, Vol. 24, # 7, Oct. 1986, p. 428 - 429.
  • Thomas Rossing, "Open and Closed Tube Resonators", TPT, Vol. 24, # 8, Oct. 1986, p. 459. 
  • Joe Pizzo, "Response", TPT, Vol. 24, # 8, Oct. 1986, p. 459.
  • Joe Pizzo, "Deck the Halls...with interactive corridor demonstrations: Ambient Noise Resonators (There's Music in the Air)", TPT, Vol. 24, # 5, May 1986, p. 312 - 313.
  • Michael J. Moloney, Daniel L. Hatten, "Acoustic Quality Factor and Energy Losses in Cylindrical Pipes", AJP, Vol. 69, # 3, March 2001, p. 311.
  • George M. Hopkins, "Sound", Experimental Science, p. 142.
  • Pat Murphy, Ellen Macaulay, and the Staff of the Exploratorium, "Making Music", Exploratopia, p. 216.
  • Janice VanCleave, "Design a Musical Instrument That Can Play Different Pitches", Super Science Challenges, p. 130.
  • Jearl Walker, "3.36, Conch Shells", The Flying Circus of Physics Ed. 2, p. 161.
  • "Pipes of Pan", Exploratorium Science Snackbook, p. 77-1 - 77-2.
  • Ron Hipschman, "Pipes of Pan", Exploratorium Cookbook III: A Construction Manual for Exploratorium Exhibits, Recipe No. 189, p. 189-1 - 189-3.
  • Tom Senior, "Mass Production of Pan Pipes", Pan Pipes.

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